Donnerstag, 27. September 2012
Die Situation von Jungen und Mädchen in Äthiopien
Unicef hat einen neuen Bericht über die Situation von Kindern in Äthiopien herausgegeben. Der Bericht ist eine bunte Mischung aus Statistiken und Einzelschicksalen und deckt eine Vielzahl von Themen wie Bildung, Kinderarbeit, Gesundheit und regionale Entwicklungen ab. Auf Seite 31 befindet sich ein Kapitel über Kinder in Pflege und internationale Adoptionen wie auch eine beunruhigende Analyse von Kinderhandel in Äthiopien.
HIV and AIDS, natural disasters, severe poverty, war, internal migration and other factors, as well as the breakdown of family structures, have caused a rise in the number of children in need of alternative care. In the absence of a formal system of family-based alternatives, many such children find themselves in child care institutions. Nationally this figure is likely to be in excess of 10,000. In 2010, two assessments of institutional child care were conducted by the Ministry of Justice, together with the Ministry of Women, Children and Youth Affairs, the Charities and Societies Agency and the six regional bureaus of justice, BoLSA, BoWA, BoFED and Regional Police Commissions. The study assessed 149 child care institutions in Amhara, Oromia, SNNPR, Dire Dawa City Administration and Harar. Almost two thirds of these assessed child care institutions lack a database on children in need of alternative care. The study found that 45 per cent of the child care centres had no operating licence or their license had expired. The effect of lack of financial resources and supervision, and minimal awareness of child protection strategies, mean that institutions providing alternative care to children do not always act in the best interests of the child. There is little knowledge of, and compliance with, official guidelines and standards, and minimal supervision. Children in institutional care can be exposed to physical violence and often have psychological problems. Over 4,500 children were placed in inter-country adoption in 2009, which represents a doubling since 2006. This rapid increase in the number of inter-country adoptions has raised concerns about the best interests of the child in these cases, where Ethiopia has not ratified the Hague Convention on Inter country Adoption (1993) and there is a lack of safeguards in an unregulated system.
Child Victims of Trafficking
The International Office of Migration estimates that at least 1.2 million children are victims of trafficking in Ethiopia every year. Children and women between the ages of 8 and 24 years are the most vulnerable to such abuse and exploitation and the violence associated with them. Research also indicates that over a quarter of nearly 50,000 women and children involved in prostitution are victims of trafficking. The Criminal Code includes provisions criminalizing trafficking in women and children for the purposes of sexual or labour exploitation. Juridical persons (institutions) can also be liable for participation in the trafficking of children under article 645 of the Criminal Code. The Federal Police Department has formed an anti-trafficking task force, but most trafficking is clandestine and difficult to trace.